This graphic depicts the interconnected assessment elements involved in effective assessment practice. The graphic has a blue triangle, point down, with words at each of its points. The left point reads observation. The right point reads interpretation and the bottom point reads cognition. There are two arrows running the length of each side of the triangle. At the top is an arrow leading from interpretation to observation and another arrow leading from observation to interpretation. On the left side is an arrow leading from observation to cognition and another arrow leading from cognition to observation. On the right side is an arrow leading from interpretation to cognition and another arrow leading from cognition to interpretation. Under the blue triangle is a box providing a citation for the graphic as Pellegrino et al. from a two thousand one article called ‘Knowing What Students Know’ published by the National Research Council at the National Academy Press.